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Conservation of Biodiversity

Two years has passed since we transplanted plants damaged by excessive picking onto the premises of Toshiba Group's production site. We have succeeded in artificial breeding, tripling the number of stocks before returning them to their original habitat.

Ex-situ conservation promoted by Toshiba Group:
On the premises of its business sites, Toshiba Group promotes ex-situ conservation (Convention on Biological Diversity* (CBD) Article 9) to protect and artificially breed rare flora and fauna which inhabit the surrounding areas as well as to return them to their original habitats. In May 2012, Toshiba Lighting & Technology Corporation in Yokosuka City accepted 28 stocks of daylily, a lily-family plant that had been picked excessively in the Miura Peninsula's Koajiro forest.
*
Measures taken for the recovery and rehabilitation of threatened species and for their reintroduction into their original habitats under appropriate conditions as well as measures taken for the purpose of complementing in-situ measures (as stipulated in Article 8 of the Convention) aiming to conserve such threatened species within their original habitats.

[Image]

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Transplanting of daylilies (May 2012)

Subsequently, we carefully adjusted the watering frequency and fertilizer composition while continuing to monitor the plants' growth. Finally, in August 2012, two stocks came into bloom for the first time.

[Image] First daylily that bloomed (August 2012)

[Image] First daylily that bloomed (August 2012)

First daylily that bloomed (August 2012)

However, the purpose of transplanting was to increase the number of stocks, not to grow flowers. So, to provide the plants' roots with nutrients for consumption in order to bloom flowers, we nipped the flowers in the bud.
In managing the plants, we placed the highest priority on growing daylilies; thus, we also removed the lawn covering the soil surface.

In the winter of 2013, the plants were in the state shown in the photograph below. We were seriously concerned that they might have withered.

[Image] Daylilies in the winter (February 2013)

[Image] Daylilies in the winter (February 2013)

Daylilies in the winter (February 2013)

In the spring of 2013, however, they sprouted vigorously once again.
In the autumn of 2013, we confirmed that the number of stocks had increased to approximately 60.

[Image] Daylilies blooming in the second year (July 2013)

[Image] Daylilies blooming in the second year (July 2013)

Daylilies blooming in the second year (July 2013)

Finally, in May 2014, exactly two years since the first transplanting, we succeeded in increasing the number of stocks to approximately 100 and performed a return ceremony in Koajiro forest.

Successful breeding increased the original 28 stocks to approximately 100

[Image] Successful breeding increased the original 28 stocks to approximately 100

[Image] Successful breeding increased the original 28 stocks to approximately 100

After tripling the number of stocks, returning them to Koajiro forest

[Image] After tripling the number of stocks, returning them to Koajiro forest

[Image] After tripling the number of stocks, returning them to Koajiro forest

[Image] After tripling the number of stocks, returning them to Koajiro forest

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Flora and fauna in Koajiro forest

[Image] Flora and fauna in Koajiro forest

[Image] Flora and fauna in Koajiro forest

[Image] Flora and fauna in Koajiro forest

[Image] Flora and fauna in Koajiro forest

[Image] Flora and fauna in Koajiro forest

[Image] Flora and fauna in Koajiro forest

In July 2014, Daylilies which were returned to Koajiro forest came into bloom. They are successfully returning to the wild.

[Image] Daylilies in Koajiro forest

[Image] Daylilies in Koajiro forest

Koajiro forest was opened to the public in July 2014. Daylilies preserved by Toshiba Group are growing on Enoki Terrace. According to our experience in tending the daylilies, they come into full bloom from late July to mid-August. We hope you are able to visit Koajiro forest around that time.

In the future, we plan to share the breeding know-how obtained at Toshiba Light & Technology Corporation with other Toshiba Group production sites, thereby providing Toshiba-grown daylilies to Koajiro forest from a number of different production sites each year.

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Significance of promoting ex-situ conservation in production site environs

In addition to daylilies, Toshiba Group is promoting ex-situ conservation of rare fish and plant species inhabiting areas around its production sites.

Compared to parks and forests, where government organizations and NPOs promote initiatives to protect rare species, corporate production sites are better insulated from excessive picking or hunting by third parties thanks to more effective security measures; such sites also are at lower risk of feeding damage due to natural predators or invasive alien species. Therefore, corporate production sites share the characteristics of strict nature preserves. We recognize the effects of our land use on ecosystems. At the same time, as part of efforts to protect the diversity of rare species through our new ecosystem conservation initiatives, we will continue to make use of the characteristics of our business and production sites having large areas of land.

Development of ecological networks

Establishment of ecosystem networks centered on production sites

Land use is one human activity that has an effect on ecosystems. Residential land and location of factories disrupt wildlife corridors and effect the living environments of plants and animals. Therefore, Toshiba Group aims to establish ecosystem networks that connect production sites with their neighboring areas.

Toshiba calls for employees who cultivate fruits such as yuzu (Citrus junos) and sudachi (Citrus sudachi) in their home gardens to allow some of the larvae of the swallowtail butterflies living on their leaves to grow until they mature into adults rather than eradicating all of them. Toshiba also distributes yuzu seedlings free of charge to employees who want them. We believe that we can contribute to expanding butterflies' habitats by calling them into our employees' home gardens.

Plants (eaten by butterflies) Butterflies expected to be called in (example)
Yuzu and sudachi (citrons) Asian swallowtail, spangle, and great Mormon
Kumquat Asian swallowtail, spangle, and Chinese peacock

[Image] Citrons
Citrons

[Image] Asian swallowtail (caterpillar)
Asian swallowtail (caterpillar)

[Image] Asian swallowtail (imago)
Asian swallowtail (imago)

Additionally, the company plans to develop yuzu orchards in part of the green space at each of its production sites and make it a shelter for butterfly eggs laid in employees' home gardens and larvae that hatch from the eggs.

In the future, Toshiba aims to minimize the number of larvae eradicated at homes and establish an ecosystem network for butterflies that connects employees' homes, local forests, rivers, parks, and so forth with the company's production sites as its core.

Establishing a network for butterflies that connects employees' homes, neighboring parks, forests, rivers, and so forth with production sites as its core
[Image] Establishing a network for butterflies that connects employees' homes, neighboring parks, forests, rivers, and so forth with production sites as its core

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Example 1: Toshiba Carrier Corporation's Fuji Operation

Developing an ecological network and practicing ex-situ conservation of rare flora and fauna in a biotope created using factory effluent

Toshiba Carrier Corporation's Fuji Operation has developed a biotope in an open area on its premises. Using a solar-powered pump, wastewater is drawn from the factory into a pond inhabited by many aquatic species, including killifish, diving beetles and dragonfly larvae. In July 2013, a spot-billed duck and ducklings were seen at the pond.

[Image] View of the biotope
View of the biotope

[Image] Structural diagram of the biotope / Wastewater drawn from the factory into the pond
Structural diagram of the biotope
Wastewater drawn from the factory into the pond

Many plants have been planted around the pond, including evergreen witchhazels (endangered IB species in Shizuoka Prefecture's red data book), fringed irises (endangered IB species) and hyacinth orchids (near-threatened species).

The biotope is managed by employees of the Fuji Operation with advice from Prof. Michiko Shimoda of Tokoha University's Faculty of Social and Environmental Studies. Local elementary schoolchildren participate in nature observation events held at the biotope.

Species (examples) observed at Toshiba Carrier Corporation's Fuji Operation Biotope

[Image] Evergreen witchhazel
Evergreen witchhazel

[Image] Killifish
Killifish

[Image] Lesser emperor
Lesser emperor

[Image] Lesser emperor larva
Lesser emperor larva

[Image] Fringed iris
Fringed iris

[Image] Hyacinth orchid
Hyacinth orchid

[Image] Spot-billed duck and ducklings
Spot-billed duck and ducklings

Nature observation event in which elementary schoolchildren participated

[Image] Nature observation event in which elementary schoolchildren participated

[Image] Nature observation event in which elementary schoolchildren participated

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Medium-term plan for the Conservation of Biodiversity

2015 target

Toshiba Group aims to minimize the adverse effects of its business activities on biodiversity and shift its biodiversity policy toward initiatives for improvement to realize an ideal state of environmental management in 2015.

These efforts aim to stop the decreases in the kinds of biodiversity that each site has decided to protect by 2015 and allow for such biodiversity to increase in subsequent years.

Minimizing Adverse Effects and Increasing Biodiversity (Conceptual Diagram)
[Image] Minimizing Adverse Effects and Increasing Biodiversity (Conceptual Diagram)

The global Aichi Biodiversity Targets adopted at the Tenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP10) held in Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, in October 2010 require all signatories to start increasing biodiversity by 2020.

Toshiba Group plans to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets about five years ahead of schedule.

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Medium-term plan for the period up to 2015

To achieve the 2015 target, Toshiba Group aims to develop biotopes at 64 of its business and production sites worldwide.

[Image] Medium-term plan for the period up to 2015

Development of biotopes will be promoted in three steps: biodiversity surveys, selection of metrics and measurement of effects. Biodiversity surveys consist of investigations of living organisms and "red lists" in the environs of business sites, explorations of biodiversity by experts, and assessments of biodiversity potential at such sites and in neighboring areas.

Based on this survey data, Toshiba Group will select living organisms to serve as metrics, take measures to protect and increase them, and make periodic measurements of effects, thereby verifying the appropriateness of the biotope development process. Under the medium-term plan, the Group will take these steps at a minimum of 32 of its sites (50%) each year.

Medium-term plan

FY2012 FY2013 FY2014 FY2015
50% of sites surveyed 100% of sites surveyed 50% of sites have selected metrics 100% of sites have selected metrics 50% of sites have measured effects 100% of sites have measured effects

*50% = 32 or more sites

Steps in biotope development

[Image] Medium-term plan for the period up to 2015

Survey Investigate organisms living on the premises; investigate IUCN and local area Red Lists; onsite inspection by local experts; assessment of biodiversity potential for targeted and neighboring areas.
Select metrics Select relevant metrics on the basis of investigation data; devise measures to protect and expand the selected metrics.
Measure Measure the metrics on a periodic basis. Examples of measurement targets: Number of species of animals, number of animals within each species, number of plant roots, size of planting area.
Improve Improvement or enhancement in metrics achieved as a result of periodic measuring.

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Results for FY2013

In FY2012 and FY2013, we completed biodiversity surveys at 64 eligible sites. Further, based on these survey results, we selected metrics at 58 sites. As a result, the percentage of sites for which metrics had been selected reached 91% in FY2013 (plan goal: 50%). We will gradually carry out biodiversity protection activities at all sites, including the remaining six sites.

Region Eligible sites % of sites surveyed No. of sites where metrics
have been selected
% of sites where metrics
have been selected
Total 64 100% 58 91%
Japan 45 100% 42 93%
China 10 10 100%
Asia 5 3 60%
Americas 2 2 100%
Europe 2 1 50%

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Development of a Biodiversity Conservation Database

We have created a biodiversity conservation database containing data from the 64 production sites targeted by the Fifth Environmental Action Plan in order to share information among all group companies. We use the same format in Japan and overseas so that we can share information about progress and activities in three stages (survey, metrics selection and measurement) at individual sites.

[Image] Survey
Survey

[Image] Metrics selection
Metrics selection

[Image] Measurement
Measurement

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Toward mainstreaming biodiversity

Current state of initiatives for mainstreaming biodiversity

Since the need to conserve biodiversity is less well known than the needs to address climate change and waste management, efforts are underway to make biodiversity conservation a mainstream part of environmental activities*1 around the world. Internationally, mainstreaming focuses on strategic goal A of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets adopted at COP10 in 2010. At the same time, national mainstreaming strategies are being formulated in countries around the world. In Japan, government organizations and private groups are hosting seminars, educational events and awards programs for companies and the public at large. Despite such efforts, results of various questionnaire surveys suggest that not much progress in mainstreaming has been made*2.

*1
“Mainstreaming” means that the importance of biodiversity conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity is widely recognized by national and local governments, business operators, NPOs and the public at large and is reflected in their activities (2013 Annual Report on Biodiversity).
*2
According to the FY2012 Survey on Initiatives Implemented by Business Operators for Biodiversity Conservation conducted by the Ministry of the Environment, only 12% of companies surveyed (approximately 2,600 companies having 500 or more employees) knew of and were using the Guidelines for Private Sector Engagement in Biodiversity, while 25% of them knew of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The percentage of such recognition among all companies in Japan is likely to be even lower.
Mainstreaming under the Aichi Biodiversity Targets
Aichi Biodiversity Targets Strategic Goal A
Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society
Target 1
Target 2
Target 3
Target 4
Strategic Goal B
Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use
Target 5
Target 6
Target 7
Target 8
Target 9
Target 10
Strategic Goal C
To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
Target 11
Target 12
Target 13
Strategic Goal D
Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services
Target 14
Target 15
Target 16
Strategic Goal E
Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building
Target 17
Target 18
Target 19
Target 20

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Review of factors that prevent mainstreaming: Starting with the classification of ecosystem services

Biodiversity conservation aims to allow human beings to sustainably use the ecosystem services provided by nature. Ecosystem services are classified into provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services, and so on.

Ecosystem services
Ecosystem services (1) Provisioning services Physical supply of food, water, wood, fuel, etc.
(2) Regulating services Decomposition of waste, purification of water and regulation of climate
(3) Cultural services Recreation as well as mental, cultural and intellectual benefits

Maintenance and improvement of provisioning and regulating services require protecting Mother Nature. Therefore, events for citizens often focus on large-scale nature conservation activities, such as tree planting and community forest conservation.

Nevertheless, so far there has been little progress in mainstreaming biodiversity. One reason for this is that current biodiversity conservation activities mainly target provisioning and regulating services. Tree planting and community forest conservation require participants to visit remote natural environments on holidays. The repeat rate for such activities is extremely low. Also, corporate citizenship activities such as these cost time and money, imposing considerable burdens on companies. Furthermore, worsening financial conditions sometimes make it difficult to continue CSR and corporate citizenship activities.

In other words, in order to promote mainstreaming of biodiversity at the corporate and citizen levels, it is more important to develop activities that allow participants to come into daily contact with the natural environments familiar to them. To this end, improvement in cultural services in urban areas is likely to be more effective. For example, activities developed on factory premises to contribute to cultural services can be continued as long as the factory is in operation.

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Toshiba Group's contributions to mainstreaming

Toshiba Group's biodiversity conservation activities aim to contribute to cultural services; the activities focus on simple daily activities that can be carried out by employees and their families in collaboration with residents of the local community.

By improving cultural services in areas around factories, we aim to promote changes in local residents' awareness, including that of employees, as well as to contribute to mainstreaming biodiversity. Participants in our activities have made various comments, such as that they started to record the behavior of swallowtail butterflies and that they had not known a particular species of fish was endangered. Such comments indicate that our activities are gradually achieving their objectives.

In addition, the activities promoted by Toshiba Group for the Development of Ecosystem Networks around Factories and for Ex-situ Conservation of Rare Flora and Fauna are designed to promote activities that contribute to improving biodiversity using simple but effective methods. Since such methods do not require time or money, these activities can be undertaken by various companies, including small- and medium-size enterprises. In the future, we plan to develop wide-area activities involving collaboration among companies.

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Toward the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

The Four Electrical and Electronic Associations* Biodiversity Working Group, of which Toshiba Group is a member, reviewed the relationship between electrical and electronic companies' activities for environmental and biodiversity conservation and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, which needs to be achieved at the global level. Review results were published in April 2014; the results indicate that activities developed by electrical and electronic companies are relevant to 17 of the 20 specific goals.

*
Four Electrical and Electronic Industry Associations in Japan: The Japan Electrical Manufacturers' Association (JEMA), Communications and Information Network Association of Japan (CIAJ), Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA) and Japan Business Machine and Information System Industries Association (JBMIA)

Relationship between electrical and electronic companies' activities and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets
[Image] Relationship between electrical and electronic companies' activities and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Quoted from the Four Electrical and Electronic Associations Biodiversity Working Group LSB

Based on the review, we examined the relationship between Toshiba Group's programs and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. As a result, we found that our programs are relevant to 10 of the 20 specific goals. The table below summarizes the current state of the relevant programs.

We will continue our biodiversity conservation activities with a view to contributing to the achievement of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

Relationship between Toshiba Group's Business Activities and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets
Aichi Biodiversity Targets goal related to Toshiba Group's business activities* Toshiba Group initiatives

Target 1
By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably. Incorporation into the Fifth Environmental Action Plan
Distribution of information through environmental reports and company websites
In-house education through e-learning, the Biodiversity Guidelines, etc.

Target 2
By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems. Formulation of the Fifth Environmental Action Plan, the Basic Policy for the Environment, the Biodiversity Guidelines, etc.

Target 4
By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits. Promotion of reduced environmental impact in business processes

Target 5
By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced. Utilization of FSC-certified paper and the Forest Neighborhood Association
Planting trees through the 1.5 Million Tree-Planting Project, etc.
Implementing measures starting from production sites where it is possible to develop ecosystem networks

Target 8
By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity. Promotion of proper management of chemicals

Target 9
By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment. Implementation of measures to exterminate alien species on factory premises and in areas around factories

Target 10
By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning. Promotion of measures to mitigate climate change, effective use of resources, and proper management of chemicals

Target 12
By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained. Improvements related to daylilies, Japanese eight-barbed loaches and Mikekado pumpkins

Target 15
By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification. The tree-planting rate exceeds 15% at Toshiba Group's individual production sites. However, some of the green land are not contributing to the recovery of the ecosystem.

Target 19
By 2020, knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are improved, widely shared and transferred, and applied. Use of the honeycomb rib structure in notebook PCs
Focusing attention on trends identified by The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) and the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)
*
Goals 3, 6, 7, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18 and 20 were deemed irrelevant.
*
The icons of each goal were downloaded from “Nijyu-maru Project (A new window will open.)” Website

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Toshiba Group is carrying out biodiversity conservation activities at 64 locations worldwide.

[Image]
* Explained in detail “Ex-situ conservation of rare flora and fauna.

Biodiversity Guidelines

Toshiba Group formulated the Biodiversity Guidelines in September 2009. The Group will strive to make its initiatives for preserving biodiversity visible by analyzing its business activities and diverse environmental issues, including biodiversity, in comprehensive, quantitative terms and thus reduce environmental impacts and utilize ecosystem services in a sustainable manner.

Toshiba Group Biodiversity Guidelines

Basic policy

In order to conserve biodiversity and promote the sustainable use of biological resources that constitute biodiversity, Toshiba Group will implement the following measures:

  • Analysis of the impact of our business activities on biodiversity
  • Reduction of the impact on biodiversity and the sustainable use of resources through our business operations
  • Development of an organizational framework to promote these measures

Specific actions

  1. We will take appropriate measures to protect ecosystems when building factories or relocating facilities.
  2. We will collaborate with local public agencies and private organizations.
  3. We will continue our commitment to corporate citizenship activities as members of a sustainable society.
  4. We will assess the impact and effects of environmental measures on various aspects of the environment, including biodiversity.
  5. We will promote initiatives for the conservation of biodiversity in supply chains, including the mining of resources.
  6. We will assess the impact of substance emissions and the consumption of resources required for our business activities.
  7. We will study the structures and systems of nature and make technological contributions to society in accordance with the characteristics of our businesses.

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Initiatives at production sites

Case Study 2: Toshiba Komukai Complex

Komukai Complex aims to establish an ecosystem network that connects Keio University and Yumemigasaki Park to the west and Tama River to the north. A pond in the courtyard of the complex was transformed into a habitat for dragonflies, and now Jomon (ancient) lotuses* are grown there.

[Image] Example1 Toshiba Komukai Complex

The pond was repaired to have three levels of depth: 0.00, 10, and 65 cm. The complex aims to offer diverse pond habitats by making different levels of depth available: 0.00 cm for Jomon lotuses, 10 cm for dragonfly nymphs, and 65 cm for dragonflies.

[Image] Jomon lotus
Jomon lotus

*
The Jomon lotus sprouted from a more than 2,000-year-old seed of a lotus excavated from relics in Chiba City in 1951. It is considered to be the world's oldest flower. So far, its roots have been divided and distributed to various parts of Japan and the rest of the world, and the Jomon lotus has been designated by Chiba Prefecture as a natural monument.

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Case Study 3: Toshiba Information Equipment (Hangzhou) Co., Ltd.

Toshiba Information Equipment (Hangzhou) conducted a survey of the ecosystem in the local community where it operates. The Hangzhou Bay wetland to the east is one of the world's treasure troves of migratory birds, which travel between Siberia and Australia via East Asia. Many migratory birds can be observed even in the environs of the company's production site as they fly in from the Qiantang River and wetland parks in eastern Hangzhou.

In the future, the company will continue to step up efforts to establish an ecosystem network with its neighboring areas mainly by conserving the willow groves at its production site.

[Image] Example2 Toshiba Information Equipment (Hangzhou) Co., Ltd.

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Ex-situ conservation of rare flora and fauna

Toshiba Group is promoting an ex-situ conservation* initiative as stipulated in Article 9 of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

*
Measures taken for the recovery and rehabilitation of threatened species and for their reintroduction into their original habitats under appropriate conditions as well as measures taken for the purpose of complementing in-situ measures (as stipulated in Article 8 of the Convention) aiming to conserve such threatened species within their original habitats.

Case Study 4: Toshiba Keihin Product Operations

Japanese eight-barbel loaches are protected within an unused pond at the site. Plans call for these loaches to be returned to Tsurumi River, their original habitat, in the future after they have grown up in the pond.

[Image] Japanese eight-barbel loach (Listed as endangered by the Ministry of the Environment)
Japanese eight-barbel loach
(Listed as endangered by the Ministry of
the Environment)

[Image] Raised in an unused pond
Raised in an unused pond

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Case Study 5: Buzen Toshiba Electronics Corp.

The company works to conserve Mikekado pumpkins around its production site in cooperation with civic groups.

[Image] Cultivating and harvesting pumpkins in cooperation with local elementary schools
Cultivating and harvesting pumpkins
in cooperation with local elementary schools

[Image] Mikekado pumpkin
Mikekado pumpkin

Tradition says that what are now called Mikekado pumpkins were first brought by the Portuguese to the Mikekado area in Buzen City, Fukuoka Prefecture, via Oita Prefecture over 400 years ago. They are said to be the oldest type of introduced pumpkins in Japan.

Since the Mikekado pumpkin, which retains the color, shape, and taste of the ones brought to Japan in the 17th century, is valuable culturally, activities are being carried out to preserve this vegetable and hand it down to future generations.

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Case Study 6: Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

The presence of many endangered species, such as Tokyo daruma pond frogs, great purple emperors, Ascalaphus ramburi, and Japanese grass lizards has been confirmed at the company's production site and in neighboring areas. The company is striving to survey and protect these living organisms with the aim of creating an environment in which as many of them as possible may live.

Species covered by "red lists," the existence of which has been confirmed at the site and in neighboring areas (examples)

[Image] Ascalaphus ramburi (Species designated by Tochigi Prefecture as requiring attention)
Ascalaphus ramburi
(Species designated by Tochigi Prefecture
as requiring attention)

[Image] Great purple emperor (Species designated by the Ministry of the Environment as near threatened)
Great purple emperor
(Species designated by the Ministry of
the Environment as near threatened)

[Image] Ricciocarpus natans (Species designated by the Ministry of the Environment as near threatened)
Ricciocarpus natans
(Species designated by the Ministry of
the Environment as near threatened)

[Image] Northern goshawk (Species designated by the Ministry of the Environment as near threatened)
Northern goshawk
(Species designated by the Ministry of
the Environment as near threatened)

[Image] Tokyo daruma pond frog (Species designated by the Ministry of the Environment as near threatened)
Tokyo daruma pond frog
(Species designated by the Ministry of
the Environment as near threatened)

[Image] Plestiodon japonicus (Species designated by Tochigi Prefecture as endangered type Ⅱ)
Plestiodon japonicus
(Species designated by Tochigi Prefecture
as endangered type Ⅱ)

Confirmed insects (examples)

[Image] Cetonia pilifera
Cetonia pilifera

[Image] Indian fritillary
Indian fritillary

[Image] Sympetrum infuscatum
Sympetrum infuscatum

Natural environment within the site and in neighboring areas

[Image] Plants at the production site that are home to snakes and lizards
Plants at the production site that are
home to snakes and lizards

[Image] Large birds fly over above plant communities in a field that has been abandoned and left uncultivated
Large birds fly over above plant communities
in a field that has been abandoned
and left uncultivated

[Image] Grassy area
Grassy area

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Case Study 7: Toshiba Information Equipment (Philippines), Inc.

The company strives to conserve five endangered species, including narra, white lauan, and ipil trees, in the environs of its production site and distributes seeds of these trees to nearby schools and suppliers to increase the number of ex-situ conservation sites.

[Image] Narra
Narra

[Image] White lauan
White lauan

[Image] Ipil tree
Ipil tree

Narra, the national tree of the Philippines, once grew throughout the country, but owing to excessive felling, it is now designated as an endangered species. Narra trees were felled mainly because they were highly valuable as construction materials; it is said that many of the felled trees were exported to Japan.

It is highly significant that Toshiba Information Equipment (Philippines), a Japanese-affiliated company, protects narra and expands narra forests.

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Range of travel of plants and animals in ex-situ conservation

In order to ensure ex-situ conservation, it is necessary to pay attention to the range of travel of plants and animals. For example, it is not desirable to protect Hokkaido's endangered species at a factory in Kyushu, which has a different climate and living environment. How far, then, can endangered species be transferred?

One guideline is to keep them within a river basin. "Basin" refers to the area of land where rivers catch the rain that falls and can be considered to be a single unit of an ecosystem. Therefore, Toshiba Group has a principle of moving plants and animals within the same basin when its business and production sites do so for the purpose of ex-situ conservation.

In Japan, 109 first-class rivers and their valleys occupy about 70% of the country's land, and Toshiba Group has confirmed which valley each of its domestic businesses and production sites are located in. Also at its business and production sites outside Japan, the Group promotes ex-situ conservation as necessary while referring to maps of basins and vegetation distribution charts for each region, marshland characteristics, and other data as well as paying attention to ecosystem units.

Map of basins of first-class rivers
[Image] Map of basins of first-class rivers
Source: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism

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Biodiversity conservation through local collaboration

At Toshiba Group, we are promoting biodiversity conservation activities in collaboration with local stakeholders and governments. For example, Mr. Yuji Kishi, Professor Emeritus at the Keio University in Tokyo and representative of TR Net, a non-profit organization (NPO), advises us on our initiative targeting the Tsurumi River watershed. As for ex-situ conservation of daylilies at Toshiba Lighting & Technology Corp., we collaborate with Kanagawa Prefecture, which owns the Koajiro forest. Going forward, we will continue to promote biodiversity conservation activities in collaboration with local experts and interested parties

Tsurumi River Basin Networking (TR Net;NPO)

[Image] Survey of a production site conducted by Prof. Yuji Kishi, Representative (right)
Survey of a production site conducted by Prof. Emeritus Yuji Kishi, Representative (right)

[Image] Logo of TR Net (NPO)
http://www.tr-net.gr.jp/

(Japanese site)

An NPO represented by Professor Emeritus Yuji Kishi of the Keio University Faculty of Economics. TR Net has conducted a study on the ecosystem and implemented conservation projects at the Tsurumi River watershed for more than 20 years.

[Image] Tsurumi River Basin Networking (NPO) Representative Director Professor Emeritus of Keio University Mr. Yuji Kishi
Tsurumi River Basin
Networking (NPO)
Representative Director
Professor Emeritus of
Keio University
Mr. Yuji Kishi

In other words, mainstreaming biodiversity means that all individuals and organizations confirm the crisis of and hope for biodiversity in their daily lives and business activities, find ways of contributing to conservation and reconstruction, and implement these on a daily basis. The potentials of production sites are drastically being reconsidered today from this new perspective. For example, a review of production sites in the context of vast expanses of land (ecosystems) such as nearby river systems and their basins indicates that each site is a party to the crisis and represents hope for its ecosystem because it is an important part of the ecosystem and fulfills a role unique to the area where it is located. Also, it is a focus of great expectation and hope as a new place that provides a living environment to neighboring organisms that can fly, or as a candidate for ex-situ conservation for those which are endangered in the local ecosystem and cannot fly. Furthermore, nature reserves of corporate sites are characteristically managed strictly because they are placed under rigorous security management. If we just realize this, the logical conclusion is that corporate sites can be centers of hope for the conservation and restoration of biodiversity in the ecological spaces (including river systems and their valleys, hills, etc.) where they are located.

The biodiversity crisis will be overcome through diverse ways and means when individuals and organizations figure out, in all aspects of their daily lives and business activities, and recognize this as a challenge that they should solve and take action for on their own initiative in cooperation with their local communities. I sincerely hope that Toshiba, which has brilliantly realized this simple, clear, and powerful truth and started a local and global biotope strategy, will play an active role in mainstreaming biodiversity.

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Internalization of the biodiversity potential assessment method

Assessing the areas surrounding production sites is essential for implementing initiatives at the sites. Toshiba and InterRisk Research Institute & Consulting, Inc. have jointly developed a simplified version of the biodiversity potential assessment method that can be conducted by production site staff. We regularly hold one-day internal training courses on this method. By attending one of these training courses, employees can learn about the biodiversity potential assessment method as well as acquire basic knowledge and the latest trends related to biodiversity.

[Image] The condition of the natural resources (wooded areas and river systems) located within a 2-km radius of each site is quantified in terms of points by using aerial photographs and literature.

[Image] Biodiversity training
Biodiversity training

[Image] Mr. Makoto Haraguchi of InterRisk Research Institute & Consulting, Inc.
Mr. Makoto Haraguchi of InterRisk Research Institute & Consulting, Inc.

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Positioning of biodiversity in LIME

Toshiba Group makes use of the Japanese version of the Life-cycle Impact assessment Method based on Endpoint modeling (LIME), developed by the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, to assess the effects of its business operations on biodiversity. The LIME method expresses the effects of resources consumed for business activities and chemical substances discharged from them on human society and the ecosystem as coefficients. In order to assess the effects on biodiversity, damage caused to four affected areas (ecological toxicity, land use, resource consumption, and waste) is quantified to calculate the Expected Increase in Number of Extinct Species (EINES), an indicator of how much extinction risks for the Red List of endangered species increase. This enables quantitative analysis of material input and output associated with business activities as a direct indicator of effects on endangered species.

Assessment of using the LIME method
[Image] Assessment of using the LIME method

Map of the relationship between business and biodiversity*
[Image] Map of the relationship between business and biodiversity

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Case Study

Assessment of products’ effects on biodiversity

Toshiba Group assesses its products’ effects on biodiversity using the Japanese version of the Life-cycle Impact assessment Method based on Endpoint modeling (LIME), which allows for comprehensive assessments from four perspectives: (1) human health, (2) biodiversity, (3) social assets and (4) primary production. It is also developing products that contribute to conserving biodiversity.

Analysis of LIME assessments
[Image] Analysis of LIME assessments

Spectroscopic properties of E-CORE, our LED lamp model designed to reduce UV radiation
[Image] Spectroscopic properties of E-CORE, our LED lamp model designed to reduce UV radiation

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Case Study in 2009

Example of LIME assessments: Electric power substations

[Image] Example of LIME assessments: Electric power substations
145kV GIS

Some electric power substations are built in mountainous regions covered with rich green foliage. Toshiba Group uses the LIME method to assess environmental impact reduction effects obtained when reducing the area of installation for substations with old air-insulated switchgears (AIS) and that for substations with 145 kV gas-insulated switchgears (GIS). GIS substations, which require only 1/30 of the installation area for AIS substations, reduce the integrated LIME assessment indicator to 20% of the level of AIS substations because the effects of land use (modification of forests), disposal of concrete for the foundation, and so forth are reduced substantially. In particular, it is found that the effects of GIS substations on biodiversity are reduced to 10% of the level of AIS substations.

Comparison of integrated LIME assessments of substations
[Image] Comparison of integrated LIME assessments of substations

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Supply chain initiatives

In addition to conventional green procurement, procuring raw materials in consideration of the ecosystem will be one important element of future biodiversity conservation initiatives. Toshiba is working to develop tools that can be applied to assess the effects of procured materials.

Index of Mining Impact on Biodiversity (MiBiD™)*

Toshiba Group has developed the MiBiD™ method to quantify the impacts of materials that constitute its products on the biodiversity of areas adjacent to mines when they are extracted. The Group has created a database of minerals extracted from mines around the world that records the relationships between the production scale of the mines and the surrounding reserves and vegetation using MiBiD/kg as the base unit. Until recently, this method covered iron, copper, and aluminum, which are all used in large quantities globally and indispensable to electric products, and now the MiBiD database includes zinc and lead as well. Application of MiBiD™ may enable us to procure materials while taking mining's effects on biodiversity into consideration. In order to identify the mines from which materials used for products and at business and production sites are procured, it is essential to obtain supply-chain information (e.g., the names of mines from which materials are extracted and the amounts of minerals used). Toshiba Group believes that in the future, if an environment that enables us to obtain such information becomes available, MiBiD™ will contribute to building our supply chain while taking biodiversity into consideration.

Flow of processes
from mining to products

[Image] Flow of processes from mining to products

Example of calculating the MiBiD base unit (MiBiD/kg) for each mine
[Image] Example of calculating the MiBiD base unit (MiBiD/kg) for each mine

*
MiBiD™: Index of Mining Impact on Biodiversity

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